Friday, July 24, 2020

Reimagining the Reading Life An Interview with Lauren Leto

Reimagining the Reading Life An Interview with Lauren Leto It was a happy day when Lauren Letos Judging a Book By its Lover landed on my doorstep last month. A collection of essays about  books,  publishing, and the  reading life, Judging a Book By its Lover covers everything from Harry Potter fandom to how to fake like youve read Very Important Novels. Its a funny, thought-provoking, delightfully unpretentious look at why we read and how we talk about  books, and Im thrilled to have been able to ask Leto a few questions about the book and her own  reading life. _________________________ Rebecca Joines Schinsky: You say early on, “If we get too comfortable in our reading choicestoo lazywe’re giving something up.” What do you do when you want to shake up your reading life? Lauren Leto: I like to read through The Paris Review interviews and blindly purchase any name an author mentions who I haven’t read. That led me recently to P.G. Wodehouse through Nicholson Baker’s interview The Art of Fiction No. 212. It’s a great method you like Author A, Author A loves Author B give it a shot. I’ve been on a kick where I won’t read more than one book by any author lately. I used to go up and down an author’s oeuvre, gorging myself on that one person. Now I’m trying to put some space between an author’s works, I’d rather be exposed to more authors than read everything by one author. RJS: The book includes helpful (and often hilarious) tips for meeting, wooing, and dating readers. Ever dated someone who didn’t read? LL: Yes. I’ve often dated non-readers. I’ve often broken up with non-readers. There’s a pattern, I’ve finally figured out. I need someone who understands why my reading light is still on. However I’m dating a fantasy fan, which I thought was even less likely than dating a non-reader. He’s converted me into a rabid fangirl of The Dark Tower series. I’m pretty happy we met mostly because of those books. RJS: You devote a section of the book to open letters you’ve written to fans of various authors. What author has the coolest fans? The most insufferable? LL: Most insufferable: Ayn Rand. Hands down. Truthfully, I loved The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged when I read them in high school. Great stories, I thought Dagny Taggert was amazing. But growing up your opinion changes as you more closely think about the messages and when you meet people like Paul Ryan who take it too far. Coolest: I’ve never met a William Gibson fan I didn’t like. RJS: The section called “How to Write Like Any Author” boils writers down to their essential elements. Who didn’t you include in the section that you wish you could add? (I must confess, I was sad not to see John Irving thereParent dies, sexual hang-ups, bears, Vienna, wrestling, Dickensian attempts. Too easy?) LL: Ah! I didn’t think of him. That’s great. Houellebecq: Brooding, middle-aged, not-great-looking male lead. Sick or absent father and mothers. Mostly meaningless relationships with females. Driving around Paris in a nice car. RJS: While pondering the fates of kids who love The Velveteen Rabbit, you posit that “if they went to Hogwarts, they’d get placed in Hufflepuff.” Where would the Sorting Hat place you? LL: Slytherin. I’d love to go to Gryffindor, but I’m an asshole and the Hat would know it. Or I’d be placed in Ravenclaw and condemned to be a background character. I felt so bad for the kids at Hogwarts whose biggest dream was to make it on their Quidditch team while Harry was saving the world. RJS: Who is your favorite author, and what’s your one-sentence stereotype of people who love him or her? LL: Fyodor Dostoevsky. In the book I categorize Dostoevsky fans as “Guys I want to sleep with.” If I had to characterize all fans of him in my image, I’d go with “overeating, anxiety-prone holders of obscure degrees.” RJS: You wrap details of online drama and Twitter tempests-in-teacups into a few of the essays. What authors have the best and worst Twitter feeds? Who’s an author you wish was on Twitter? LL: Oh! I followed closely the ‘Emma Straub is too nice’ feud and have to say that she is delightful on Twitter. Bret Easton Ellis is a trainwreck (‘tweetwreck’?). Gary Shytengart is so-so, more weird than funny or interesting. Zadie Smith would be great at Twitter. I feel like she’d be insightful, funny, good links. I want to know more about what goes on in her head daily. RJS: Coolest thing happening in literary culture right now? LL: Self-publishing. The ‘bookstore’ in the next decade will be radically innovated. It’ll be an open platform, people will move faster from obscurity to popularity (and vice-versa). Publishing and books aren’t dying, they’re being reimagined. RJS: What’s your take on the current debate about who the ‘real’ critics are and what makes a book review? LL: I love book reviews, the form you find in the Times Book Review. It’s the only section of the paper I reliably read every weekend. Naomi Wolf’s book Vagina: A New Biography was skewered in a review by Toni Bentley and I became a bit annoyed that the book got such a large spread (front page plus two pages). If it was bad, why not just leave it out of the Review. As a selfish person, I want to only hear about the good books. The silence is damning enough to bad books. But, it’s important we hear it. It’s nice to see less than glowing reviews, I find outlining deficiencies teaches more about what makes a good book than highlighting the high points. RJS: Finally, what other books about books and the reading life do you recommend? LL: Books about books! My favorite genre. I love Jonathan Franzen’s book of essays How to Be Alone particularly the edited version of his Harper’s essay Perchance to Dream, renamed in the book to Why Bother? His ideas of social isolationists resonated with me. Finally a term to describe why I like to sit alone with a story other than ‘introvert’. I work at a social reading startup called Findings. When I started, I read The Case for Books by Robert Darnton insightful for anyone thinking hard about the industry’s future. Lauren Leto Lauren Leto dropped out of law school to start the popular humor blog “Texts from Last Night.” She co-authored the book  Texts from Last Night: All the Texts No One Remembers Sending. She created the website Banters and is now working on a new site, Findings. She lives in Brooklyn. Judging a Book By its Lover is available now from Harper Perennial. Sign up for True Story to receive nonfiction news, new releases, and must-read forthcoming titles. Thank you for signing up! Keep an eye on your inbox.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Treatment Of Schizophreni Treatment For Schizophrenia Essay

TREATMENT FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia currently has no cure, but there are various treatments that can be utilized to manage its symptoms. The first step to adequately treating a schizophrenic patient is a correct diagnosis; inclusively Tsuang, Glatt, and Faraone (2011) suggest that, â€Å"Differential diagnoses are crucial in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia to rule out other conditions† (p. 13). After a conclusive diagnosis, treatment options are discussed and â€Å"neuroleptics are usually first choice for treatment† (Tsuang et al., 2011, p. 94). Neuroleptics or antipsychotics are known to, â€Å"block dopamine D2 receptors, and this is believed to be crucial to their antipsychotic action† (McKenna Mortimer, 2010, p. 33). Antipsychotics are labeled under two categories, â€Å"Typical† or â€Å"First- generation antipsychotics† (FGAs) and â€Å"Atypical† or â€Å"Second- generation antipsychotics† (SGAs). According to Marin, Escobar, and World Scientific (2013), â€Å"The selection of an antipsychotic for the initial treatment of schizophrenia is essentially a trade- off between the risk for metabolic side effects†¦ and the risk for motor adverse effects† (p. 87) On one hand, the â€Å"most common side effect is extrapyramidal† (Tsuang et al., 2011, p. 91) for typical antipsychotics. Whereas atypical antipsychotics, according to Tsuang (2011), are known to have metabolic side effects like weight gain or a much more serious side effect called â€Å"agranulocytosis, which i ncreases susceptibility toShow MoreRelatedTreatment Options For Schizophreni Symptoms And Symptoms Of Schizophrenia1479 Words   |  6 PagesTreatment Through time, scientists and doctors have created various treatment options for schizophrenia based off scientific theories in their time. At one point physicians would perform brain surgery to remove a portion of brain from an individual suffering with schizophrenia that was responsible for the hallucinations and delusions the individual would experience. Although the surgery might have decreased the amount of hallucinations and delusions experienced by the individual, it led to cognitive

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Essay on Body Temp and Reaction Time - 1848 Words

Can Your Body Tell the Time of Day? (NOTE: If you have thought of a statistics project that you would prefer to tackle instead of the one described below, contact me. I’ll try to make an equivalent project using your particular topic of interest.) Objective: You will measure how body temperature and reaction time vary throughout the course of a day, as well as related questions. In particular, you must address each of the questions below. ï‚ · Question 1: At what time of the day is the body temperature highest? When is it lowest? How much difference is there? Are body temperatures between midnight and noon significantly different than body temperatures between noon and midnight? Question 2: At what time of the day does reaction time peak?†¦show more content†¦Introduction: In order to stay healthy and to function efficiently, living things must coordinate their internal processes with the external world. The most obvious feature of our environment that most creatur es have to respond to is the daily cycle of light and dark. Biological processes that follow this 24-hour cycle, such as our sleep-wake cycle, are said to follow a circadian rhythm. One of the best-known circadian rhythms in humans is the daily change in body temperature. We tend to be at our coolest in the early morning and at our warmest in the late afternoon and early evening. Other circadian rhythms include hormone levels, alertness, muscle strength, and heart rate. The controlling regulator for these cyclic processes within the body is thought to be the hypothalamus, which is in the brain. Figure 1. Overview of circadian cycles in humans. This diagram depicts some of the circadian patterns that occur in humans. Note that the clock is on a 24-hour cycle, so that 3:30 p.m., for example, is noted as 15:30. The hormone melatonin, which is a key regulator of the internal circadian clock, peaks in concentration at 21:00 (9:00 p.m.). (Wikipedia, 2008.) Data Collection Requirements: You need to collect both measurements of temperature and reaction time throughout the day. Variables of interest must include (but are not limited to): age of participant, gender of participant, time of day measurement isShow MoreRelatedMetabolism : A Machine Fueled By Activity And Temp1287 Words   |  6 PagesActivity and Temp. Introduction What is metabolism? Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. The Major point of this experiment was to see how and if the chemical processes of metabolism could impact body temperature. However first it must be explained what body temperature is actually measuring. When we measure body temp. We are actually measuring the body’s ability to make and give off heat. When our body is hot the bloodRead MoreEnzyme Activity1327 Words   |  6 Pagesthe effect of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration on Enzyme activity? Purpose: Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They break down molecules called substrates. Each enzymes have only one substrate that breaks down. Enzymes are produced in the cells of the body and affect the rate of almost all the chemical reactions which take place in living organisms. The rate of enzymes activity is influenced by temperature, pH, and substrate concentration. The purposeRead MoreIntroduction. Circadian Or Diurnal Rhythms Are Metabolic1646 Words   |  7 PagesCircadian or diurnal rhythms are metabolic or behavioural rhythms, in animals and plants, that occur usually within a 24-hour cycle (Abercrombie et al. 1990). The changes in body temperature over the course of a day (24 hours), or in the case of females, over a month, is one of the most documented human circadian rhythms. Body temperature as well as circadian rhythms in humans is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain that forms part of the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamusRead Moreenzymes1044 Words   |  5 PagesIndependent Variable pH Controlled Variables temperature, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced Independent Variable temperature Controlled Variables pH, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced Read MoreThe Establishment of a Chemical Equation Using the Method of Continuous Variation.1627 Words   |  7 Pagesused per mole of acid. B) find the heat of reaction (Delta H) in kilocalories (kcal) per mole of bas used, assuming the specific heat of the solution to be 1.00 Cal/degree-gram and the density of the solution to be 1.00 g/ml. use the delta t for the run nearest to that producing a maximum temperature in which there is an excess of acid used, or the value at the maximum of your curve. C) Write a completely balanced equation for your reaction, including delta H. IV. Concentration ofRead MoreCarbohydrate and Points Essay612 Words   |  3 Pages LAB 2 1.Identify the functional group or molecule for each of the following. (3 points) a.COOH temp b.COH temp c.COH temp 2.List whether each of the following substances was positive or negative for reducing sugar, as indicated by the Benedicts test. (6 points) a.corn syrup (1 point) b.table sugar (1 point) c.unknown 1 (1 point) d.unknown 2 (1 point) e.unknown 3 (1 point) f.unknown 4 (1 point) 3.List whether each of the following substances was positive or negative for starch,Read MoreElisa: Immune System and Serum D= Donor Essay665 Words   |  3 Pagesprotein or substance in these bodily fluids, such as infectious agents, allergens, hormones or drugs. This test relies on the interaction between components of the immune system called antigens and antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to identify and neutralize any foreign substances that may be encountered, such as viruses and bacteria. The substances to which antibodies are produced are known as the antigens as they stimulate an immune response. If antibodies are being detectedRead MoreThe Effect Of Different Temperatures On The Reaction Rates Of Enzymes2033 Words   |  9 PagesTemperatures on the Reaction Rates of Enzymes B. Introduction / Background Enzymes are proteins that are in every living organism. Cells need them to survive and to function. Enzymes are catalysts that help to speed up the rate of reactions that otherwise would take longer periods of time to occur. However they do not change during the reaction. A chain of amino acids forms them. There are over a hundred different enzymes in the human body. Each enzyme is responsible for a certain reaction that occursRead MoreInvestigating The Relationship Between Temperature And The Rate Of Lipase1933 Words   |  8 Pagesto find the temperature at which the lipase will be denatured. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that act as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of chemical reaction but is not consumed or changed by the reaction. A catalyst reduces the activation energy needed to initiate and sustain the reaction. Enzymes molecules have a small region that is functional, known as an active site. Substrate molecules are held within the active site by temporaryRead MoreProduction of Acetone1934 Words   |  8 Pagesoxidation of Propene (Wacker-Hoechst). The process is analogous to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by theWacker process. The catalyst solution typically contains 0.045M Palladium (II) chloride, 1.8M Copper (II) Chloride, and acetic acid. The reaction usually is carried out in two alternating stages. In the first stage, air is used to oxidize the metal ions to the +2 oxidation state. In the second, air is removed and propene added. Palladium (II) oxidizes propene, and the resulting Palladium (I)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mental Illness Free Essays

The social construction of mental illness Key Words * Career: The gradual change in people as a response to a label e. g. mental patient. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Illness or any similar topic only for you Order Now * Learned Helplessness: learning how to be dependent. * Life-course model: suggests that the accumulation of social events experienced over a whole lifetime, not just individual important events, influence people and their mental state. * Presenting culture: a term used by Goffman to refer to how people like to portray themselves to others. * Schizophrenia: a form of mental illness where people are unable to distinguish their own feelings and perceptions from reality. Self-Fulfilling prophecy: predictions about the behaviour of social groups that come true as a result of positive or negative labelling. * Social Capital: refers to a network of social contacts. * Social constructionism: the approach which suggests that mental illness exists because people believe that it does. * Social realism: a sociological approach which suggests that mental illness does really exist. Summary Mental illness is the less fortunate twin to physical illness. The NHS is not funding enough support for me ntal health patients and the attention paid to it is minimal. Mental health is a major problem in society with one in seven people claiming to have had mental health problems at some point in their lives. Social Trends 2007 (Self and Zealey 2007) said that about one in six British people aged 16 to 74 reported experiencing a neurotic disorder in the seven days before a national survey on mental health. When looking at which group is most likely to suffer from high rates of mental illness, the poorest and most excluded are majorly overrepresented. Defining mental illness Social Realism: A general term used to describe the approaches of sociologists who accept that there are distinctive sets of abnormal behaviour that cause distress to individuals and those around them. * Pilgrim and Rogers (1999) accept that, at different times and in different cultures, there are variations in what is considered as mental illness. * Although mental illness may have different names and sometimes not be recognized, it does actually exist as a real condition. * Si milar to the bio-medical approach which believes that symptoms can be scientifically diagnosed and categorized. They see treatment as allopathic (cure orientated through the use of drugs, shock treatment and surgery etc. * They recommend that sufferers be isolated from wider society. Social constructionism: * Have been very influential in sociological approaches to mental illness and start from the argument that what is considered as normal varies over time and from society to society. * Greater extremes of behaviour have been seen as normal in some societies and symptoms of madness in others. Labelling perspective: Labelling theory examines how the labelling of mental illness occurs in the first place and what effects it has on those who are labelled. * Thomas Szasz (1973) argues that the label ‘mental illness’ is simply a convenient way to deal with behaviour that people find disruptive. He is particularly critical of psychiatrists for diagnosing children with ADHD and calling it a disease. He says that giving a child a drug for a mythical disease is a form of physical child abu se because the child has no say in the matter. Labelling theory therefore rests firmly upon a social constructionist definition of mental illness. The effects of labelling * Scheff (1966) said that whether someone becomes labelled or not is determined by the benefits those others might gain by labelling the person ‘mentally ill’. So, those who become a nuisance are far more likely to become diagnosed as mentally ill as someone who causes no problems. * Once labelled, there are a number of negative consequences for the person because it is then assumed that all their behaviour is evidence of their mental state. Erving Goffman (1961) followed the careers of people who were genuinely defined as being mentally ill. He suggested that once in an institution people are stripped of their presenting culture. Criticisms of the labelling perspective * Gove (1982) suggests that the vast majority of people who receive treatment for mental illness actually have serious problems befor e they are treated so the argument that the labels cause the problems is wrong. It may explain the responses of others to the mentally ill, but cannot explain the causes of the illness. Foucault’s perspective on mental illness: * He explains the growth in the concept of mental illness by placing it in the context if the changing ways of thinking and acting which developed in the early 18th century. * During the enlightenment more traditional ways of thinking were gradually replaced by more rational and disciplined ways of thinking. He argues that as rationality developed into the normal way of thinking, irrationality became to be perceived as deviant. * Having mad people in asylums isolated mad people away from the majority of the population. They symbolized the fact that madness or irrationality was marked out as behaviour that is no longer acceptable. Structuralist perspectives on mental illness: * Virde (1977) explained the fact that some ethnic minorities are more likely to develop mental health problems by arguing that the sorts of pressures and stresses that can cause people to develop mental illness are more often experienced by people in an ethnic minority. * Nazroo is critical of this approach. He points out that people of the Bangladeshi origin who are victims of racism have lower levels of mental illness than the general population. He concludes that mental illness cannot just be caused by racism and deprivation. * Brown et al (1995) explained that women are more likely to lead stressful lives because they have the dial burden and triple shift. * Labelling theorists (Chelser 1972), say that women are more likely to be seen as mentally ill because the defining of illness is mainly done by males. * Link and Phelan (1995) reviewed all the evidence and concluded that research pointed out a relationship between low levels of deprivation and mental illness. Social capital (Putnam 2000) argued that people who have extensive and strong levels of social networks are more likely to be ‘happier’ than those who don’t. Check Your Understanding: 1) The two sociological approaches to explaining mental illness are social realist and social constructionist. 2) Social realist bases itself on the idea that there are distinctive sets of abnormal behaviour that should be treated; they are very similar to the bio-medical approach. Social constructionist believes that definitions of mental illness can vary over time and in different cultures. 3) Labelling helps us understand that some people may live up to the label they have been given and can strip mental health patients of any self-dignity as they have no say in what happens to them as they have been given the label of someone who is mad. 4) A structural explanation is closely tied to the social realist definition of mental illness; they accept the reality of mental illness and set out to discover what social factors help cause them. ) Busfield says that it is true that some groups are more likely to find their behaviour defined as mental illness, compared to the behaviour of other groups however al of those groups experience higher levels of stress so mental illness would be higher. 6) They are more likely to show cultural characterises that are not seen as normal in a wider society. 7) They use the idea that women have more responsibilities than men and th at the defining of mental illness tends to be dominated by male health professionals. How to cite Mental Illness, Papers Mental Illness Free Essays Johnson KayLa English 100 M W 9:30-11:00 Mental Illness Essay November 19, 2012 November 26, 2012 Sane or Insane: Who’s to know? Everyone once in their life has either thought as themselves or another as crazy. In today’s day and age people find it fun to be called crazy, that was not the case in the past. People in our past who were demined â€Å"Insane† were sent away, hidden from society’s eyes and subjected to cruelty and unnecessary torture. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Illness or any similar topic only for you Order Now America’s health system has changed dramatically for the good and also it recent cases for the bad for some people. Today healthcare is easy to come by but with so many faults it’s hard to know which ones are good and will do better by the person and their family’s health needs. There are many types of health care, that all offer different things. Have different coverage’s and pay for different things. Asking several different people what they think is wrong with America’s health care system Coming to a list of conclusions of our health system. When asked â€Å"How do you feel about the health care plan you have? † people generally answered its okay, better than none. A generally flat answers right? Well when asked â€Å"What do you think your plan can improve on? † they began to list things like pay for more test pay for more medication that’s needed and the most common answer was to allow them to pick their own doctors and not having to wait months for one appointment. As an eighteen year old college student there was no clue about healthcare and its faults and didn’t know it was so hard to get good healthcare. Also finding out that it may be hard now but it was not as nearly as hard as it was before in America. Treating public illness has long been a process of trial and error guided by public attitudes and medical theory (Kimberly Leupo). This quote makes so much sense because as a society were so concerned about what people will think we just want to get rid of the problem, even if it’s your son with autism or a daughter with down syndrome etc. There has always been those who’s suffered from mental illness, as far back as the Egyptian or even the second millennium before Christ. They were often killed or locked away and that had little change in our history. In early America the colonist refereed to those with mental illness ass â€Å"lunatics† all because they believed a person was crazy when they were born on the night of a full moon or sleeping under the light of a full moon, who’s crazy here? They declared these people possessed by the devil (no exaggerating on their behalf), and were removed and locked away from society. These lunatics were put under 1 of 2 labels which were: Mania and Melancholy. Mania was mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions and overactivity. Melancholy was a feeling of pensive sadness, typically with no obvious cause. They believed to cure an individual they had to catalyze crisis or expel crisis from the indiviual. For this they had several procedures including: 1. Submerging patients in ice baths until they lost consciousness 2. Executing a massive shock to the brain 3. Induced and forced vomiting 4. The notorious â€Å"bleeding† practice, The bleeding practice entailed draining the bad blood from the individual, unfortunately this inhumane practice normally resulted in death or the need for lifelong care; at best the odds were one in three that this procedure would actually lead to an improvement in the patient’s health(Kimberly Leupo). The colonial era’s methods of handling the mentally ill and medical procedures are considered arguably barbaric vs. todays means of the treatment of the mentally ill. In that time it worked fine because they were hidden from society’s harsh and judgmental eyes. Around the 19th century the Europeans showed us a new to treat the mentally ill called â€Å"Moral Management. † This was based on that the environment played a vital role in treatment of the mental ill. In this process you had to create a more domestic feel to the patients living conditions, thus, replacing shackles, chains and cement cells with the little things like pictures and a bed. Recover was more likely to occur if they felt more like they were at home. Treatment also went under construction Phrenology was introduced, studying the shape of the brain to explain illnesses and render diagnosis. Also since the patients were no longer restrained all day they became unruly and basically bored so they had to come up activates for them to do to occupy their time. A very important point in the history of how we treat our mentally ill was the civil war. After the Civil War in America a great number of servicemen suffered from postwar trauma; war wounds that were emotionally and mentally ingrained as opposed to physical injuries. These inflicted persons were passed on to state mental hospitals and asylums, where the public displayed much interest in their care and treatment. Although, the public eye watched very closely how their ‘war boys’ were treated, institutions had no choice but to reinstate old procedures due to the serious issue of overcrowding. Restraints and shock therapy were reintroduced, along with new drug treatments such as opium. With that came the need to find more room for mental ill, thus, Asylums began to open up across the country to give those people help. Thomas Story Kirkbride was the designer of asylums at the time, and became well- known for his popular architectural ideas. He took great care and thought in constructing asylums taking in consideration of the patients and workers who would be in the asylums. For example in 1874 â€Å"Athens Asylum for the Insane. † Was open for the public. It was the most attractive asylum in its day built to please the public’s eye but also to withstand the harshest conditions from within. The original 544- room construction had two staggered wings branching out from a central building. The building had an exit and entrance only from the center building and the design was ideal for cross- ventilation and patient control. The design called for the least disturbed patients to be placed closer to the center building to encourage interaction with the staff, and as the patients’ conditions worsened their placement would extend respectively throughout each wing toward the back of the structure. The establishment community housing farms, a dairy barn, greenhouses, a transportation system, graveyards, etc. the patients had much to do while being treated. With the increasing great news of the asylums their population grew in shocking numbers. However some people took advantage of this. It was common for homeless people, tramps and hobos to become ‘patients’ of the asylums seasonally for shelter and food, and then â€Å"elope,† or slip away when the good weather returned. Families would leave the elderly people at these places because of lack of time or resources to â€Å"deal† with them properly. The community found that these institutions were an easy means to remove unwanted people from society. As a result of asylums not having a mean of rejecting patients the people who were truly mentally ill and needed treatment suffered as a result. The now revised and human care of mental patient began to slip back to their old ways because of overcrowding. Now instead of single bedrooms to one’s self patients had to sleep in wooden crib like beds three stacked. Water baths and shock therapy had made an unjust comeback, and now the in the early 1930s the notorious lobotomy was introduced into American medical culture. The original lobotomy is a medical procedure where the neural passages from the front of the brain are surgically separated from those in the back of the brain, the most common result of this procedure was the patient would their depressing or discouraging feelings or tendencies. This was a very delicate and time consuming process it required great skill and training from great surgeons. In result of the great outcome of this great time was invested into this. Walter J. Freeman developed the trans- orbital lobotomy. The procedure was performed as follows: -To induce sedation, inflict two quick shocks to the head. -Roll back one of the patients’ eyelids. -Insert a device, 2/3 the size of a pencil, through the upper eyelid into the patients’ head. -Guided by the markings indicating depth, tap the device with a hammer into the patients’ head/ frontal lobe. -After the appropriate depth is achieved, manipulate the device back and forth in a swiping motion within the patient’s head. This was a much faster and efficient way. In a local newspaper, on November 20, 1953, the headline read â€Å"Lobotomies are performed on 31 Athens State Hospital Patients,† and the article boasted that nearly 25 of those who received surgery would be able to go home with their relatives Sunday. Soon this began to stir up controversy and harsh criticism due to the larger number of deaths and complications. It was soon referred to as â€Å"psychic mercy killing† and â€Å"euthanasia of the mind. † This was by far and no doubt mental health care’s darkest hour. Healthcare was in its darkest hour until Psychotropic medication was pioneered. In 1954 the medical community introduced an anti-psychotic drug called Thorazine for the treatment of the mentally ill. In a rapid almost trend like success; other psychotropic medications became available, making it possible to cut greatly the length of time patients stayed in mental institutions. This breakthrough led to a significant decline in asylum populations, and the gradual discontinuation of less humane treatments and procedures. Unfortunately In 1972, a federal court ruled that patients in mental health facilities could no longer work at these institutions without pay. The result of this ruling further changed the nature of the Mental Healthcare; the dairy farming had to go, as well as the upkeep of much of the grounds. The institutions didn’t have enough money to pay the patients for their contributions and also didn’t have sufficient money/funds or staffing to occupy patients with enough free time. The costs of housing patients increased dramatically, patients became bored and felt they lacked the purpose they once clung to, and consequently the need to de-institutionalize was more prevalent than ever. During the de-institutionalization process, three out of every four patients were released from the Athens Asylum. The relocating process was greatly aggravating and traumatic for the patients; patients were released to their families, nursing homes, and half- way houses. The homeless population soared, the mentally ill population representing nearly a third. The state pushed this process along by offering monetary rewards for decreasing the number of in-patients in asylums. Although healthcare is not as good as it should or can be, it has greatly changed for the better. People should be glad because if it were the same maybe they wouldn’t be reading this essay, maybe they would of found a reason to lock an individual away in an insane asylum and been done with them. There is some revision needed to healthcare but instead of just adding a complaint why don’t you do something to help make the change you want to see. Be the change you want to see in the world. Works Cited cracked. com. N. p. , n. d. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. cracked. com/funny-7539-insane-asylums/. ? Leupo, Kimberly. toddlertime. com. N. p. , n. d. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. toddlertime. com/advocacy/hospitals/Asylum/history-asylum. htm. nih. gov. A. D. A. M , 13 Feb. 2012. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001925/. Schizophrenia. com. N. p. , n. d. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. schizophrenia. com/history. htm. How to cite Mental Illness, Essay examples

Mental Illness Free Essays

The social construction of mental illness Key Words * Career: The gradual change in people as a response to a label e. g. mental patient. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Illness or any similar topic only for you Order Now * Learned Helplessness: learning how to be dependent. * Life-course model: suggests that the accumulation of social events experienced over a whole lifetime, not just individual important events, influence people and their mental state. * Presenting culture: a term used by Goffman to refer to how people like to portray themselves to others. * Schizophrenia: a form of mental illness where people are unable to distinguish their own feelings and perceptions from reality. Self-Fulfilling prophecy: predictions about the behaviour of social groups that come true as a result of positive or negative labelling. * Social Capital: refers to a network of social contacts. * Social constructionism: the approach which suggests that mental illness exists because people believe that it does. * Social realism: a sociological approach which suggests that mental illness does really exist. Summary Mental illness is the less fortunate twin to physical illness. The NHS is not funding enough support for me ntal health patients and the attention paid to it is minimal. Mental health is a major problem in society with one in seven people claiming to have had mental health problems at some point in their lives. Social Trends 2007 (Self and Zealey 2007) said that about one in six British people aged 16 to 74 reported experiencing a neurotic disorder in the seven days before a national survey on mental health. When looking at which group is most likely to suffer from high rates of mental illness, the poorest and most excluded are majorly overrepresented. Defining mental illness Social Realism: A general term used to describe the approaches of sociologists who accept that there are distinctive sets of abnormal behaviour that cause distress to individuals and those around them. * Pilgrim and Rogers (1999) accept that, at different times and in different cultures, there are variations in what is considered as mental illness. * Although mental illness may have different names and sometimes not be recognized, it does actually exist as a real condition. * Si milar to the bio-medical approach which believes that symptoms can be scientifically diagnosed and categorized. They see treatment as allopathic (cure orientated through the use of drugs, shock treatment and surgery etc. * They recommend that sufferers be isolated from wider society. Social constructionism: * Have been very influential in sociological approaches to mental illness and start from the argument that what is considered as normal varies over time and from society to society. * Greater extremes of behaviour have been seen as normal in some societies and symptoms of madness in others. Labelling perspective: Labelling theory examines how the labelling of mental illness occurs in the first place and what effects it has on those who are labelled. * Thomas Szasz (1973) argues that the label ‘mental illness’ is simply a convenient way to deal with behaviour that people find disruptive. He is particularly critical of psychiatrists for diagnosing children with ADHD and calling it a disease. He says that giving a child a drug for a mythical disease is a form of physical child abu se because the child has no say in the matter. Labelling theory therefore rests firmly upon a social constructionist definition of mental illness. The effects of labelling * Scheff (1966) said that whether someone becomes labelled or not is determined by the benefits those others might gain by labelling the person ‘mentally ill’. So, those who become a nuisance are far more likely to become diagnosed as mentally ill as someone who causes no problems. * Once labelled, there are a number of negative consequences for the person because it is then assumed that all their behaviour is evidence of their mental state. Erving Goffman (1961) followed the careers of people who were genuinely defined as being mentally ill. He suggested that once in an institution people are stripped of their presenting culture. Criticisms of the labelling perspective * Gove (1982) suggests that the vast majority of people who receive treatment for mental illness actually have serious problems befor e they are treated so the argument that the labels cause the problems is wrong. It may explain the responses of others to the mentally ill, but cannot explain the causes of the illness. Foucault’s perspective on mental illness: * He explains the growth in the concept of mental illness by placing it in the context if the changing ways of thinking and acting which developed in the early 18th century. * During the enlightenment more traditional ways of thinking were gradually replaced by more rational and disciplined ways of thinking. He argues that as rationality developed into the normal way of thinking, irrationality became to be perceived as deviant. * Having mad people in asylums isolated mad people away from the majority of the population. They symbolized the fact that madness or irrationality was marked out as behaviour that is no longer acceptable. Structuralist perspectives on mental illness: * Virde (1977) explained the fact that some ethnic minorities are more likely to develop mental health problems by arguing that the sorts of pressures and stresses that can cause people to develop mental illness are more often experienced by people in an ethnic minority. * Nazroo is critical of this approach. He points out that people of the Bangladeshi origin who are victims of racism have lower levels of mental illness than the general population. He concludes that mental illness cannot just be caused by racism and deprivation. * Brown et al (1995) explained that women are more likely to lead stressful lives because they have the dial burden and triple shift. * Labelling theorists (Chelser 1972), say that women are more likely to be seen as mentally ill because the defining of illness is mainly done by males. * Link and Phelan (1995) reviewed all the evidence and concluded that research pointed out a relationship between low levels of deprivation and mental illness. Social capital (Putnam 2000) argued that people who have extensive and strong levels of social networks are more likely to be ‘happier’ than those who don’t. Check Your Understanding: 1) The two sociological approaches to explaining mental illness are social realist and social constructionist. 2) Social realist bases itself on the idea that there are distinctive sets of abnormal behaviour that should be treated; they are very similar to the bio-medical approach. Social constructionist believes that definitions of mental illness can vary over time and in different cultures. 3) Labelling helps us understand that some people may live up to the label they have been given and can strip mental health patients of any self-dignity as they have no say in what happens to them as they have been given the label of someone who is mad. 4) A structural explanation is closely tied to the social realist definition of mental illness; they accept the reality of mental illness and set out to discover what social factors help cause them. ) Busfield says that it is true that some groups are more likely to find their behaviour defined as mental illness, compared to the behaviour of other groups however al of those groups experience higher levels of stress so mental illness would be higher. 6) They are more likely to show cultural characterises that are not seen as normal in a wider society. 7) They use the idea that women have more responsibilities than men and th at the defining of mental illness tends to be dominated by male health professionals. How to cite Mental Illness, Papers Mental Illness Free Essays Johnson KayLa English 100 M W 9:30-11:00 Mental Illness Essay November 19, 2012 November 26, 2012 Sane or Insane: Who’s to know? Everyone once in their life has either thought as themselves or another as crazy. In today’s day and age people find it fun to be called crazy, that was not the case in the past. People in our past who were demined â€Å"Insane† were sent away, hidden from society’s eyes and subjected to cruelty and unnecessary torture. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Illness or any similar topic only for you Order Now America’s health system has changed dramatically for the good and also it recent cases for the bad for some people. Today healthcare is easy to come by but with so many faults it’s hard to know which ones are good and will do better by the person and their family’s health needs. There are many types of health care, that all offer different things. Have different coverage’s and pay for different things. Asking several different people what they think is wrong with America’s health care system Coming to a list of conclusions of our health system. When asked â€Å"How do you feel about the health care plan you have? † people generally answered its okay, better than none. A generally flat answers right? Well when asked â€Å"What do you think your plan can improve on? † they began to list things like pay for more test pay for more medication that’s needed and the most common answer was to allow them to pick their own doctors and not having to wait months for one appointment. As an eighteen year old college student there was no clue about healthcare and its faults and didn’t know it was so hard to get good healthcare. Also finding out that it may be hard now but it was not as nearly as hard as it was before in America. Treating public illness has long been a process of trial and error guided by public attitudes and medical theory (Kimberly Leupo). This quote makes so much sense because as a society were so concerned about what people will think we just want to get rid of the problem, even if it’s your son with autism or a daughter with down syndrome etc. There has always been those who’s suffered from mental illness, as far back as the Egyptian or even the second millennium before Christ. They were often killed or locked away and that had little change in our history. In early America the colonist refereed to those with mental illness ass â€Å"lunatics† all because they believed a person was crazy when they were born on the night of a full moon or sleeping under the light of a full moon, who’s crazy here? They declared these people possessed by the devil (no exaggerating on their behalf), and were removed and locked away from society. These lunatics were put under 1 of 2 labels which were: Mania and Melancholy. Mania was mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions and overactivity. Melancholy was a feeling of pensive sadness, typically with no obvious cause. They believed to cure an individual they had to catalyze crisis or expel crisis from the indiviual. For this they had several procedures including: 1. Submerging patients in ice baths until they lost consciousness 2. Executing a massive shock to the brain 3. Induced and forced vomiting 4. The notorious â€Å"bleeding† practice, The bleeding practice entailed draining the bad blood from the individual, unfortunately this inhumane practice normally resulted in death or the need for lifelong care; at best the odds were one in three that this procedure would actually lead to an improvement in the patient’s health(Kimberly Leupo). The colonial era’s methods of handling the mentally ill and medical procedures are considered arguably barbaric vs. todays means of the treatment of the mentally ill. In that time it worked fine because they were hidden from society’s harsh and judgmental eyes. Around the 19th century the Europeans showed us a new to treat the mentally ill called â€Å"Moral Management. † This was based on that the environment played a vital role in treatment of the mental ill. In this process you had to create a more domestic feel to the patients living conditions, thus, replacing shackles, chains and cement cells with the little things like pictures and a bed. Recover was more likely to occur if they felt more like they were at home. Treatment also went under construction Phrenology was introduced, studying the shape of the brain to explain illnesses and render diagnosis. Also since the patients were no longer restrained all day they became unruly and basically bored so they had to come up activates for them to do to occupy their time. A very important point in the history of how we treat our mentally ill was the civil war. After the Civil War in America a great number of servicemen suffered from postwar trauma; war wounds that were emotionally and mentally ingrained as opposed to physical injuries. These inflicted persons were passed on to state mental hospitals and asylums, where the public displayed much interest in their care and treatment. Although, the public eye watched very closely how their ‘war boys’ were treated, institutions had no choice but to reinstate old procedures due to the serious issue of overcrowding. Restraints and shock therapy were reintroduced, along with new drug treatments such as opium. With that came the need to find more room for mental ill, thus, Asylums began to open up across the country to give those people help. Thomas Story Kirkbride was the designer of asylums at the time, and became well- known for his popular architectural ideas. He took great care and thought in constructing asylums taking in consideration of the patients and workers who would be in the asylums. For example in 1874 â€Å"Athens Asylum for the Insane. † Was open for the public. It was the most attractive asylum in its day built to please the public’s eye but also to withstand the harshest conditions from within. The original 544- room construction had two staggered wings branching out from a central building. The building had an exit and entrance only from the center building and the design was ideal for cross- ventilation and patient control. The design called for the least disturbed patients to be placed closer to the center building to encourage interaction with the staff, and as the patients’ conditions worsened their placement would extend respectively throughout each wing toward the back of the structure. The establishment community housing farms, a dairy barn, greenhouses, a transportation system, graveyards, etc. the patients had much to do while being treated. With the increasing great news of the asylums their population grew in shocking numbers. However some people took advantage of this. It was common for homeless people, tramps and hobos to become ‘patients’ of the asylums seasonally for shelter and food, and then â€Å"elope,† or slip away when the good weather returned. Families would leave the elderly people at these places because of lack of time or resources to â€Å"deal† with them properly. The community found that these institutions were an easy means to remove unwanted people from society. As a result of asylums not having a mean of rejecting patients the people who were truly mentally ill and needed treatment suffered as a result. The now revised and human care of mental patient began to slip back to their old ways because of overcrowding. Now instead of single bedrooms to one’s self patients had to sleep in wooden crib like beds three stacked. Water baths and shock therapy had made an unjust comeback, and now the in the early 1930s the notorious lobotomy was introduced into American medical culture. The original lobotomy is a medical procedure where the neural passages from the front of the brain are surgically separated from those in the back of the brain, the most common result of this procedure was the patient would their depressing or discouraging feelings or tendencies. This was a very delicate and time consuming process it required great skill and training from great surgeons. In result of the great outcome of this great time was invested into this. Walter J. Freeman developed the trans- orbital lobotomy. The procedure was performed as follows: -To induce sedation, inflict two quick shocks to the head. -Roll back one of the patients’ eyelids. -Insert a device, 2/3 the size of a pencil, through the upper eyelid into the patients’ head. -Guided by the markings indicating depth, tap the device with a hammer into the patients’ head/ frontal lobe. -After the appropriate depth is achieved, manipulate the device back and forth in a swiping motion within the patient’s head. This was a much faster and efficient way. In a local newspaper, on November 20, 1953, the headline read â€Å"Lobotomies are performed on 31 Athens State Hospital Patients,† and the article boasted that nearly 25 of those who received surgery would be able to go home with their relatives Sunday. Soon this began to stir up controversy and harsh criticism due to the larger number of deaths and complications. It was soon referred to as â€Å"psychic mercy killing† and â€Å"euthanasia of the mind. † This was by far and no doubt mental health care’s darkest hour. Healthcare was in its darkest hour until Psychotropic medication was pioneered. In 1954 the medical community introduced an anti-psychotic drug called Thorazine for the treatment of the mentally ill. In a rapid almost trend like success; other psychotropic medications became available, making it possible to cut greatly the length of time patients stayed in mental institutions. This breakthrough led to a significant decline in asylum populations, and the gradual discontinuation of less humane treatments and procedures. Unfortunately In 1972, a federal court ruled that patients in mental health facilities could no longer work at these institutions without pay. The result of this ruling further changed the nature of the Mental Healthcare; the dairy farming had to go, as well as the upkeep of much of the grounds. The institutions didn’t have enough money to pay the patients for their contributions and also didn’t have sufficient money/funds or staffing to occupy patients with enough free time. The costs of housing patients increased dramatically, patients became bored and felt they lacked the purpose they once clung to, and consequently the need to de-institutionalize was more prevalent than ever. During the de-institutionalization process, three out of every four patients were released from the Athens Asylum. The relocating process was greatly aggravating and traumatic for the patients; patients were released to their families, nursing homes, and half- way houses. The homeless population soared, the mentally ill population representing nearly a third. The state pushed this process along by offering monetary rewards for decreasing the number of in-patients in asylums. Although healthcare is not as good as it should or can be, it has greatly changed for the better. People should be glad because if it were the same maybe they wouldn’t be reading this essay, maybe they would of found a reason to lock an individual away in an insane asylum and been done with them. There is some revision needed to healthcare but instead of just adding a complaint why don’t you do something to help make the change you want to see. Be the change you want to see in the world. Works Cited cracked. com. N. p. , n. d. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. cracked. com/funny-7539-insane-asylums/. ? Leupo, Kimberly. toddlertime. com. N. p. , n. d. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. toddlertime. com/advocacy/hospitals/Asylum/history-asylum. htm. nih. gov. A. D. A. M , 13 Feb. 2012. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001925/. Schizophrenia. com. N. p. , n. d. google. com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www. schizophrenia. com/history. htm. How to cite Mental Illness, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Kevin Roach Essays - Margaret Ringenberg, Women In World War II

Kevin Roach Humanities 4/5 Ms. Bruni January 20, 1999 Title: The Greatest Generation Author: Tom Brokaw Summary: This book tells the stories of 50 young people who grew up during the depression and fought in World War II then came home to build America into a super power that could win the cold war. In one of the first lines of the book Tom Brokaw states, ?I think this is the greatest generation that society has ever produced.? I can't even imagine all the obstacles that they had to overcome. These men and women were born in the roaring twenties when our economy was booming and prohibition was in force. They went from boom to the greatest bust in American history, the great depression. They watched their parents lose their farms and business and then were called upon to fight the two greatest war machines of the twentieth century. After defeating these aggressors the young men and women came home and got married producing the baby-boomers. The GI bill allowed more of them to get a college education than any other generation. Instead of resting on their laurels they turned the industrial machine that won the war into one of greatest peacetime economies in history. The infrastructure of highways, bridges and dams that we use today was built by these enterprising men. There were also mistakes made, McCarthyism was allowed to flourish and racism went unchallenged for much to long. This book wasn't just about history but about people stories and experiences. Tom Brokaw presents a very balanced view telling not just stories about young white men storming the beaches on D-Day but also about women in the service and those who stayed home. He also tells the stories of Japanese and African American men who were fighting to defend a country that was persecuting them. Major Characters: There are 50 major characters in this book and it would impossible for me to even mention something meaningful about everyone of them so I will pick three that I thought exemplified the spirit of the book. Ordinary People, Charles O. Van Gorder, MD: Charles was a thirty-one year old captain when he was asked to drop behind enemy line with the paratroopers during the D-Day invasion. His glider crash landed at 4:00 am on June 6. He was lucky unlike so many others no one was hurt in his glider. That changed very quickly, by 9:00 am he and his fellow doctors had set up their MASH unit. Van Gorder and the other surgeons worked for 36 hours straight operating on hundreds of wounded paratroopers while wearing their combat helmets the whole time. When Charles finally went back to his tent to get some sleep he found that a German shell had hit and destroyed it just a few minutes earlier. Van Gorder stayed with the 101st Airborne division throughout 1944 until he was captured by German soldiers during the Battle of Bastone. Van Gorder had suffered shrapnel wounds in his so he had to be supported by his friend Dr. Rodda. Charles and the other POWs were packed into a box car headed east into Germany when their train came under attack from A merican fighters so Dr. Van Gorder organized the prisoners into a giant human sign saying: USA POWS. Not long after Charles and Dr. Rodda escaped and made their way back west to American lines. After serving for 5 years and 30 straight months overseas he finally returned home to his wife Helen. Helen had given birth to Rod while Charles was in North Africa but Rod died of SIDS with out ever having met his father. Van Gorder turn down a high paying, prestigious New York fellowship to set up a practice in his hometown of Andrews, Tennessee. Dr. Van Gorder spent the rest of his life caring for the loggers of that Smoky Mountain hamlet. Women in Uniform and Out: Margaret Ray Ringenberg When Margaret Ringenberg took her first flight at the age of 7 she fell in love with flying. So after she graduated from high school she started taking lessons at the local airfield and she got her pilots license when she was only 21, just in time to apply for WASP. WASP stood for Women's

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Labour Turnover Essays

Labour Turnover Essays Labour Turnover Essay Labour Turnover Essay The way trade and commerce is conducted nowadays has evolved. Everything involving the operations of the organisation demands a more expeditious means of addressing issues and changes in the external environment. Though this apparently would drive weak companies into the verge of exiting the market, the good ones find a way for this intense demand for constant improvement to their advantage. There are some who find a way to make these incessant demands for change trigger the developmental needs of the company. This is especially true in the case of the hospitality industry. In this industry, the focus is more on the service rendered to the public; hence there is a distinct possibility for it to be indistinguishable and interchangeable. Though the external environment has been regarded by numerous organisational studies to be one of the key elements for organisational success, this end could not be achieved without initially having a strong and stable internal environment. This study will focus on that element of the organisation, particularly of Shangri-la Hotels and Resorts. Specifically, the study shall take into consideration the issue of employee turnover in relation to specific human resource management practices provided by these organisations in the hospitality industry. For this chapter, the subsequent parts shall give further details about the intention of this paper. Specifically, the chapter shall provide for the background of the topic, the actual aims and objectives of the organisation, the plan for the study, its rationale, significance to the existing literature, and its scope and limitations. Background of the Topic The internal environment provides the foundation on which an organisation establishes a firm base so as the demands of the external environment does not lead it away from its ultimate goals. In the past and existing literature, there are a couple of models on which the internal environment is managed. These two prevailing models include personnel management and human resource management. These models are often used interchangeably and espouse confusion to those unfamiliar with the differences. Personnel management is essentially the more seasoned model than human resource anagement which imposes key administrative processes in the common organisation. ( 1990, ) The issue on the use of this model is that its potential could only be maximised when the organisation imposes a strict bureaucratic model. (2001) On the other hand, the emergence of human resource management basically uses the same principles as that of personnel management. However, the scope has been broadened to cover elem ents not limited to the administrative functions of the organisation. These key elements, in relation to human resource management, are now compounded with the consideration of motivation and morale of the employees. 1995,   Hence, this addition have made the process more agreeable to the processes of the private sector as the model has veered away from the accepted notion that the people in the organisation are mere elements of the administration. Aims and Objectives Human resource management has become one of the more important models of management applied in the modern organisation. In this study, a closer look on the labour turnover in the hospitality industry shall be made. Specifically, the conditions surrounding Shangri-La shall be the basis of the discussions in the ensuing chapters. This study intends to establish the relationship of the effective implementation of human resource management and employee turnover in the hospitality industry. In order to carry out this study, the researcher shall carry out the following objectives.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What is the existing employment structure in Shangri-La?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   How does Shangri-La practice its human resource management functions?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   How do the employees regard the company’s performance in terms of: o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Training and Development o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Compensation o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Working Conditions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Organisation and Productivity o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Empowerment and Employee Involvement o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Communication o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Management and Supervision o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Teamwork  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   How does Shangri-la sustain a le vel of retention of the well-performing staff in the organisation?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What is the relationship of labour turnover and the implementation of human resource management practices of Shangri-La? Plan for the Study The paper shall carry out both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the possible causes of labour turnover in Shangri-la Hotels. To be more specific, the analysis of the practice of human resource management initiatives of the respondent company shall be made to determine whether or not it has a direct effect on the overall retention and turnover of personnel. The dissertation shall be divided into several chapters. This will ensure that the discussions are clear and consistent with the distinct areas covered by each chapter. For the purposes of this dissertation, the discussions shall be divided into five Chapters. This first chapter basically forms part of the introductory elements of this paper. It offers a discussion on what the dissertation intends to tackle and what organisational issue it seeks to resolve. An introduction to the general problem of turnover in the hospitality industry, a background of the current environment of the said industry and the rationale why and how this general problem needs to be addressed shall be indicated in this chapter. Hence, the first chapter shall build the foundation on which the subsequent chapters will relate. The second chapter shall provide for the review of related literature pertaining to employee retention, labour turnover and human resource management. On a more specific note, the discussions shall fall squarely on how the existing literature points to the concepts and issues mentioned in the aims and objectives of this paper. Moreover, this chapter will also provide some description of past studies that shows similarities with the intended ends of this paper. These discussions will then be used to relate to the actual findings of this study. The third part of the paper shall cover the methods and procedures used in this paper. Simply, the discussions on this chapter shall cover the models used in the data acquisition processes in the paper. Statistical tools as well as other concerns which the researcher encountered during the course of the study shall be taken into account. This is to provide a transparent account on how the data is acquired and that the data used in the analysis are credible. The fourth chapter shall present, interpret and analyse the data acquired from the respondent company. In this part of the study, tables and charts shall be used to summarise the findings made by the research process. Specifically, the processed data from the quantitative research shall be discussed and related to the objectives of the paper. In addition to that, the discussions shall also relate the findings on the existing theories pointed out in the earlier literature review. The last chapter shall be giving out the summary, conclusions and recommendations based on the findings of presented in the preceding chapter. In doing so, this chapter will succinctly specify the implications of the study on the overall field of organisation and human resource management. The recommendations given in this chapter shall cover the observations and arguments made throughout the dissertation. Rationale of the Study Organisational studies have emphasised time and again of the importance of offsetting the demands of the external environment with the internal environment of the organisation. This harmony provides for the overall success of the organisation. The very manifestation of this stated harmony is seen in the flexibility of the company in dealing with the demands of their operations. This is especially true for the hospitality industry as they tend to operate in a much wider scale compared to other fields. ( 2006,) The management and supervision of the environment is thus a given prerequisite. As stated in the earlier parts of this chapter, the internal environment serves as foundation for the company in dealing with the nuances of the external environment. However, this can only be done if the organisation holds on to a competent set of workers and employees dedicated to the realisation of organisational goals. (  Ã‚   2004,) The problem with this requirement is that this rarely takes place. Companies, after training their employees to meet the standards that they require, do not stay too long in the organisation as they seek other opportunities elsewhere. Studies have also pointed out that employee turnover tends to increase the costs incurred by the company and at the same time opens it up for significant losses. This is compounded by the fact that turnover of employees has the propensity to be driven by personal decisions of the individual employees. Studies have pointed to this phenomenon as voluntary turnover. Acts like resignation and retirement are among those that signify voluntary turnover. ( 2004, Hence, retention is deemed as an indispensable ends on which the company has to achieve. Significance of the Study In the past decades, the study on human resource management has become one of the most contested and debated topics. Scholarly journals and academic articles have assailed every nature of the model. In the same manner, a good number has been made for the purpose of analysing the importance of retention and the effects of turnover. This dissertation would be a welcome addition to this existing literature. In addition, the analyses and findings of this dissertation will fill in the rather scant studies on the effects of turnover and the importance of retention in the hospitality industry. In this regard, it is important to mention that the study will be focusing on a particular hotel in China. Hence, the setting of the study will also establish the existing conditions surrounding the hospitality industry in China. It will also be able to provide a succinct description of the nuances on which may help multinational companies seeking entry on the said market. Furthermore, this study will also be helpful for academics seeking to pursue further studies on the matter. This may trigger an impetus to further improve the knowledge of the existing environment and the industry on which the respondent company operates. To this end, the study will beneficial to a number of sectors in society. The implications of the findings are not limited to organisational studies alone. It affords an advantage to the actual trade and industry as well as in the academe. Scope and Limitations The discussions in the succeeding chapters shall limit itself on the rationale and the stated aims and objectives on this chapter. Subsequently, the data acquired from the primary and secondary sources shall be treated with the utmost ethical standard to ensure that the discussions are all original. In the same manner, all the other claims adapted from previous studies are to be cited while the data acquired from the respondents shall go though a process free from the personal biases of the researcher. All these are done so as the discussions and the contents of this dissertation will not fall under scrutiny and claims of preconception and even unethical manoeuvrings. On the whole, the findings of this dissertation are intended to be treated with the utmost objectivity devoid of any subjective claims coming from this researcher. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Introduction The hospitality industry in China is one of the first areas of economic activity to open to outside world and to obtain advanced international management skills as a result. It is evident that China has a bright future in this area, as the rapid development of tourism has been based on a solid foundation. By April 2004, the number of graded star level hotels had reached 8,880 with total turnover of 1,000 billion RMB ($120. 48 billion) ( 2005) People are one of the most important resources for businesses throughout the world. This is particularly true with respect to a service-intensive sector such as hospitality. The hospitality industry’s employment base is in the largest of any industry in China. ( 2005) However, the hospitality industry in China and elsewhere is facing with the problem of a shortage of qualified personnel. With globalization which is heightening competition, organizations must continue to develop tangible products and products and provide services which are based on strategies created by employees. These employees are extremely crucial to the organization since their value to the organization is essentially intangible are not easily replicated   (2002). Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of induction and training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their organization. Therefore, management of an organization at all costs must minimize employee’s turnover. Although, there is no standard framework for understanding the employees turnover process as whole, a wide range of factors have been found useful in interpreting employee turnover . 2004). Managers must recognize that employees as major contributors to the efficient achievement of the organization’s success (2000). Managers should control employee turnover for the benefit of the organization success. Employees’ turnover is a much studied phenomenon   (1998). Labor turnover is also a key competitive parameter in the hospitality industry. The importance of employees was hi ghlighted by (1991) who suggested that a total service approach was needed which included qualitative as well as quantitative elements to deliver what customers expected. Companies today generally do recognize the important contribution that their employees play in delivering the offer. However, they also make every effort to drive down internal costs as part of the price commitment. Labor turnover is seen as one area of cost which can be measured and benchmarked. It is seen as a significant factor which management can influence , 1995). Low turnover is seen as an asset in the competitive war. High turnover is seen as a problem to be managed ( 1986; 2004). (2002). The importance of allowing managerial discretion to store managers in dealing with the problems they face was recognized. (1995) suggested that companies need to invest resources in developing employees. This would lead to increased motivation, enthusiasm and overall lower labor turnover. This paper focuses on a case study of one international hotel management company in china’s hotels and uses a number of it data sources. It then examines relationships that can account for labor turnover in the light of previous research. The literature on employee turnover is divided into three groups: causes of employee turnover, effects of turnover and the strategies to minimize turnover. Labour Turnover Defined The term â€Å"turnover† is defined by   (1997) as: the ratio of the number of organizational members who have left during the period of being considered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the period. (2000) gives the statement on employee â€Å"turnover† is the rotation of workers around the labor market; between firms, jobs and occupations; and between the states of employment and unemployment. Frequently, managers refer to turnover as the entire process associated with filling a vacancy: Each time a position is vacated, either voluntarily or involuntarily, a new employee must be hired and trained. This replacement cycle is known as turnover (1995). this term is also often utilized in efforts to measure relationships of employees in an organization as they leave, regardless of reason. Voluntary vs. Involuntary Turnover There are many reasons why employees may leave an organization. Traditionally labor turnover has been seen to be either voluntary (the volition of the employee) or involuntary (, 2000;   1977; . 2001). Voluntary turnover includes push factors such staff leaving due to lack of interested in the job, and pull factors such as staff being attracted to another job by incentives. There is a vast literature on the causes of voluntary employee turnover dating back to the 1950s. Many studies are based on only a small number of variables which often only explain a sm all amount of variability in turnover. Most researchers (1982; 2001; Kramer et al. , 1995; . , 1981;   1996) have attempted to answer the question of what determines peoples intention to quit by investigating possible antecedents of employees’ intentions to quit. To date, there has been little consistency in findings, which is partly due to the diversity of employed included by the researchers and the lack of consistency in their findings. Therefore, there are several reasons why people quit from one organization to another or why people leave organization. The experience of job related stress (job stress), the range factors that lead to job related stress (stressors), lack of commitment in the organization; and job dissatisfaction make employees to quit (2004). This clearly indicates that these are individual decisions which make one to quit. They are other factors like personal agency refers to concepts such as a sense of powerlessness, locus of control and personal control. Locus control refers to the extent to which people believe that the external factors such as chance and powerful others are in control of the events which influence their lives   (2004). Manu et al. (2004) argues that employees quit from organization due economic reasons. Using economic model they showed that people quit from organization due to economic reasons and these can be used to predict the labor turnover in the market. Good local labor market conditions improve organizational stability   (1983). Large organizations can provide employees with better chances for advancement and higher wages and hence ensure organizational attachment   1990). (2001) argues that local unemployment rates interact with job satisfaction to predict turnover in the market. Role stressors also lead to employees’ turnover. Role ambiguity refers to the difference between what people expect of us on the job and what we feel we should do. This causes uncertainty about what our role should be. It can be a result of misunderstanding what is expected, how to meet the expectations, or the employee thinking the job should be different Kahn et al. 1990. Insufficient information on how to perform the job adequately, unclear expectations of peers and supervisors, ambiguity of performance evaluation methods, extensive job pressures, and lack of consensus on job functions or duties may cause employees to feel less involved and less satisfied with their jobs and careers, less committed to their organizations, and eventually display a propensity to leave the organization ( 1997). If roles of employees are not clearly spelled out by management/ supervisors, this would accelerate the degree of employees quitting their jobs due to lack of role clarity. The idea of what constitutes involuntary turnover has changed over the last decade. ( 1991) There are some factors that are, in part, beyond the control of management, such as the death or incapacity of a member of staff. Other factors have been classed as involuntary turnover in the past such as the need to provide care for children or aged relatives. Today such factors should not seen as involuntary turnover as both government regulation and company policies created the chance for such staff to come back to work, or to continue to work on a more flexible bases. Causes of Employee Turnover Job Related Factors Most researchers 1982; , 2001; , 1995;, 1981; , 1996) have attempted to answer the question of what determines peoples intention to quit by investigating possible antecedents of employees’ intentions to quit. Over time there have been a number of factors that appear to be consistently linked to turnover. An early review article of studies on turnover by (1979) revealed that age, tenure, overall satisfaction, job content, intentions to remain on the job, and commitment were all negatively related to turnover (i. e. the higher the variable, the lower the turnover). To date, there has been little consistency in findings, which is partly due to the diversity of employed included by the researchers and the lack of their findings. Therefore, there are several reasons why people quit from one organization to another or why people leave organization. The experience of job related stress (job stress), the range factors that lead to job related stress (), lack of commitment in the organization; and job dissatisfaction make employees to quit . , (2004). This clearly indicates that these are individual decisions which make one to quit. There are other factors such as a sense of powerlessness, locus of control and personal control. Locus control refers to the extent to which people believe that the external factors such as chance and powerful others are in control of the events which influence their lives Firth et al. 2004). (2004) argue that employees quit from organization due economic reasons. Using economic model they showed that people quit from organization due to economic reasons and these can be used to predict the labor turnover in the market. Good local labor market conditions improve organizational stability   (1983). Large organizations can provide employees with better chances for advancement and higher wages and hence ensure organization attachment. (I 1990)     (2001) argues that local unemployment rates interact with job satisfaction to predict turnover in the market. Role stressors also lead to employees’ turnover. Insufficient information on how to perform the job adequately, unclear expectations of peers and supervisors, ambiguity of performance evaluation methods, extensive job pressures, and lack of consensus on job functions or duties may cause employees to feel less involved and less satisfied with their jobs and careers, less committed to their organizations, and eventually display a propensity to leave the organization ( 1997). If roles of employees are not clearly spelled out by management/supervisors, this would accelerate the degree of employees quitting their jobs due to lack of role clarity. Organisational Factors Organizational instability has been shown to have a high degree of high turnover. Indications are that employees are more likely to stay when there is a predictable work environment and vice versa ( 2001). In organization where there was a high level of inefficiency there was also a high level of staff turnover (, 1994). Therefore, in situations where organizations are not stable employees tend to quit and look for stable organizations because with stable organizations they would be able to predict their career advancement. Many studies have reported a significant association between organizational commitment and turnover intentions ( 1998). (2000) study confirmed the link between commitment and actual turnover and   (2000) analysis showed that organizational commitment was a better predictor of turnover than overall job satisfaction. Researchers have established that there are different types of organizational commitment. (1990) investigated the nature of the link between turnover and the three components of attitudinal commitment: affective commitment refers to employees’ emotional attachment to, identification with and involvement in the organization; continuance commitment refers to commitment base on costs that employees associate with leaving the organization; and normative commitment refers to employees’ feelings of obligation to remain with the organization. Put simply, employees with strong affective commitment stay with an organization because they want, those with strong continuance commitment stay because they need to, and those with strong normative commitment stay because they feel they ought to. study indicated that all three components of commitment were a negative indicator of turnover. In general, most research has found affective commitment to be the most decisive variable linked to turnover. Job Satisfaction The relationship between satisfaction and turnover has been consistently found in many turnover studies ( 1998). Mobley et al 1979 indicated that overall job satisfaction is negatively linked to turnover but explained little of the variability in turnover. (2000) found that overall job satisfaction modestly predicted turnover. In a recent   2003) found the main reason by far for people leaving their employer was for more interesting work elsewhere. It is generally accepted that the effect of job satisfaction on turnover is less than that of organizational commitment. (2001) noted that the notion of job satisfaction and organizational commitment being causally related has not been incorporated in most turnover models. His study indicated there were strong causal links between stress and satisfaction (higher stress leads to lower satisfaction) and between satisfaction and commitment (lower satisfaction leads to lower commitment). He further noted a reciprocal relationship between commitment and turnover intentions (lower commitment leads to greater intentions to quit, which in turn further lowers commitment). In summary, only commitment directly affected turnover intentions. Characteristics of Employees Despite a wealth of research, there appear to be few characteristics that meaning fully predict turnover, the exceptions being age and tenure. Age is found to be negatively related to turnover (i. e. the older a person, the less likely they are to leave an organization). However, age alone explains a little of the variability in turnover and as age is linked to many other factors, alone it contributes little to the understanding of turnover behavior. Tenure is also negatively related to turnover (the longer a person is with an organization, the ore likely they are to stay). n  Ã‚   concluded that length of service is one of the best single predictors of turnover. et al also found that age and tenure have a negative relationship to turnover. There is little evidence of a person’s sex being linked to turnover. 2000 meta-analysis re-examined various personal characteristics that may be linked to turnover. They concluded that there were no differences between the quite rates of men and women. They also cited evidence that gender moderates the age turnover relationship (i. e. women are more likely to remain in their job the older they get, than do men). They also found no link between intelligence and turnover, and none between race and turnover. Wage and Conditions The research conducted on the link between dissatisfaction with pay and voluntary turnover appears to be inconclusive. (1979) concluded that results from studies on the role of pay in turnover were mixed but that often there was no relationship between pay and turnover. Other studies found no significant relationship. On the other hand, (1991) cited in Tang suggests that the most important reason for voluntary turnover is higher wages/career opportunity. 2000) noted pay and pay-related variables have a modest effect on turnover. Their analysis also included studies that examined the relationship between pay, personal performance and turnover. They concluded that when high performers are insufficiently rewarded, they leave. They cite findings from   (1999) that where collective reward programs replace individual incentives, their introduction may lead to higher turnover among high performers. For some individuals pay will not be the sole criterion when people decide to continue within an exiting job. 2000) examined the relationship between attitudes towards money, intrinsic job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. One of the main findings of this study is that voluntary turnover is high among employees who value money (high money ethic endorsement), regardless of their intrinsic job satisfaction. However, those who do not value money highly but have also have low intrinsic job satisfaction tended to have the lowest actual turnover. Furthermore, employees within high intrinsic job satisfaction and who put a low value on money also had significantly higher turnover than this second group. The researchers also found that placing a high value of money predicted actual turnover but that withdrawal cognitions(ie thinking about leaving) did not. Training and Career Development (2003) detected a complex relationship between turnover and training. He suggested that establishments that enhance the skills of exiting workers have lower turnover rates. However, turnover is higher when workers are trained to be multi skilled, which may imply that this type of training enhances the prospects of workers to find work elsewhere. The literature on the link between lower turnover ant training has found that off the job training is associated with higher turnover presumable because this type of training imparts more general skills ( 2003). (1999) examined the relationship between career commitment, organizational commitment and turnover intention among Korean researchers and found the role of career commitment was stronger in predicting turnover intentions. When individuals are committed to the organization they are less willing to leave the company. This was found to be stronger for those highly committed to their careers. The author also found that employees with low career and organizational commitment had the highest turnover intentions because they did not care either about the company or their current careers. Individuals with high career commitment and low organizational commitment also tend to leave because they do not believe that the organization can satisfy their career needs or goals. This is consistent with previous research that high career committers consider leaving the company if development opportunities are not provided by the organization. However, this group is not apt to leave and is likely to contribute to the company if their organizational commitment is increased. found that individuals become affectively committed to the organization when they perceive that the organization is pursing internal promotion opportunities, providing proper training and that supervisor do a good job in providing information and advice about careers. Comparison of Alternatives Aggregate level economic studies provide consistent and significant evidence of the impact of labor market conditions on turnover rates at an aggregate level. As(1979) pointed out, at an aggregate level the relationship between economic factors such as employment levels or job vacancies and turnover has been well established. At an individual level, the labor market approach emphasizes expected utility and rational economic choice among employees and the perceived availability of alternative job opportunities. The relationship between alternatives and turnover on an individual level has been researched widely since 1958 seminal work on ease of movement. Much of the subsequent research focused on the link between job satisfaction, perceived alternative opportunities and turnover. Later, researchers began to focus on the role of both actual and perceived opportunities in explaining individual turnover decisions. Subsequent research has indicated that actual alternatives are a better predictor of individual turnover than perceived opportunities. Research on the impact of unemployment rates as a proxy for actual opportunities in employee turnover revealed that unemployment rates affected the job-satisfaction/turnover intent relationship but not actual turnover (   1999). They concluded that macro level analysis predicted turnover patterns but perceptions of opportunities did not. This point was reinforced in their study on medical centers in various locations used measures of perceived and objective opportunities in internal and external labor markets. The authors concluded that objectives opportunities were a better set of explanations of actual turnover behavior than either perceived internal or external labor market opportunities. Nevertheless, while actual alternatives appear to be a better predictor of turnover, there is also well-established evidence of the link between perceived alternatives and actual turnover. In their most recent meta-analysis, 2000) confirmed that perceived alternatives modestly predict turnover. Intent to Quit Much of the empirical research on turnover is based on actual turnover, although some studies are based on intentions to quit. Apart from the practical difficulty in conducting turnover research among people who have left an organisation, some researchers suggest that there is a strong link between intentions to quit and actual turnover. 1979) noted that the relationship between intentions and turnover is consistent and generally stronger than the satisfaction-turnover relationship, although it still accounted for less than a quarter of the variability in turnover. Much of the research on perceived opportunities has been found to be associated with intentions to leave but not actual turnover ( 1999). One of the possible reasons is that intentions do not account for impulsive behavior and also that turnover intentions are not necessarily followed through to lead to actual turnover. Implications of Turnover The impact of turnover has received considerable attention by senior management, human resources professionals, and industrial psychologists. It has proven to be one of the most costly and seemingly intractable human resource challenges confronting organizations. Analyses of the costs associated with turnover yield surprisingly high estimates. The high cost of losing key employees has long been recognized. However, it is important for organizations to understand that general turnover rates in the workforce can also have a serious impact on an organizations profitability, and even survival. Employee turnover is expensive from the view of the organization. Voluntary quits which represents an exodus of human capital investment from organizations   (1992) and the subsequent replacement process entails manifold costs to the organizations. These replacement costs include for example, search of the external labor market for a possible substitute, selection between competing substitutes, induction of the chosen substitute, and formal and informal training of the substitute until he or she attains performance levels equivalent to the individual who quit John (2000). Addition to these replacement costs, output would be affected to some extend or output would be maintained at the cost of overtime payment. The reason so much attention has been paid to the issue of turnover is because turnover has some significant effects on organizations (1987; 1990;   1991;  Ã‚   1992). Many researchers argue that high turnover rates might have negative effects on the profitability of organizations if not managed properly (, 1992;1993; 1990). Turnover has many hidden or invisible costs(1990) and hese invisible costs are result of incoming employees, co-workers closely associated with incoming employees, co-workers closely associated with departing employees and position being filled while vacant. And all these affect the profitability of the organization. On the other hand turnover affects on customer service and satisfaction (2002). (2002) argue that turnover include other costs, such as lost productivity, lost sales, and management’s time. This demons trates that turnover affects the profitability of the organization and if it’s not managed properly it would have the negative effect on the profit. Research estimates indicate that hiring and training a replacement worker for a lost employee costs approximately 50 percent of the worker’s annual salary (, 2000 but the costs do not stop there. Each time an employee leaves the firm, productivity drops due to the learning curve involved in understanding the job and the organization. Furthermore, the loss of intellectual capital adds to this cost, since not only do organizations lose the human capital and relational capital of the departing employee, but also competitors are potentially gaining these assets   (2002). Therefore, if employee turnover is not managed properly it would affect the organization adversely in terms of personnel costs and in the long run it would affect its liquidity position. However, voluntary turnover incurs significant cost, both in terms of direct costs (replacement, recruitment and selection, temporary staff, management time), and also (and perhaps more significantly) in terms of indirect costs (morale, pressure on remaining staff, costs of learning, product/service quality, organizational memory) and the loss of social capital   (2001). Minimising Turnover: Strategies and Courses of Action Strategies on how to minimize employee turnover, confronted with problems of employee turnover, management has several policy options viz. changing (or improving existing) policies towards recruitment, selection, induction, training, job design and wage payment. Policy choice, however, must be appropriate to the precise diagnosis of the problem. Employee turnover attributable to poor selection procedures, for example, is unlikely to improve were the policy modification to focus exclusively on the induction process. Equally, employee turnover attributable to wage rates which produce earnings that are not competitive with other firms in the local labor market is unlikely to decrease were the policy adjustment merely to enhance the organization’s provision of on-the job training opportunities. Given that there is increase in direct and indirect costs of labor turnover, therefore, management are frequently exhorted to identify the reasons why people leave organization’s so that appropriate action is taken by the management. Extensive research has shown that the following categories of human capital management factors provides a core set of measures that senior management can use to increase the effectiveness of their investment in people and improve overall corporate performance of business: Employee engagement, the organization’s capacity to engage, retain, and optimize the value of its employees hinges on how well jobs are designed, how employees time is used, and the commitment and support that is shown to employees by the management would motivate employees to stay in organization’s. Knowledge accessibility, the extent of the organization’s â€Å"collaborative ness† and its capacity for making knowledge and ideas widely available to employees, would make employees to stay in the organization. Sharing of information should be made at all levels of management. This accessibility of information would lead to strong performance from the employees and creating strong corporate culture   (2002). Therefore; information accessibility would make employees feel 052   . Manage. that they are appreciated for their effort and chances of leaving the organization are minimal. Workforce optimization, the organization’s success in optimizing the performance of the employees by establishing essential processes for getting work done, providing good working conditions, establishing   accountability and making good hiring choices would retain employees in their organization. The importance of gaining better understanding of the factors related to recruitment, motivation and retention of employees is further underscored by rising personnel costs and high rates of employee turnover ( 1988;   1989;   1989; , 1981;   1986). With increased competitiveness on globalizations, managers in many organizations are experiencing greater pressure from top management to improve recruitment, selection, training, and retention of good employees and in the long run would encourage employees to stay in organizations. Job involvement describes an individual’s ego involvement with work and indicates the extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his/her job   1982). Involvement in terms of internalizing values about the goodness or the importance of work made employees not to quit their jobs and these involvements are related to task characteristics. Workers who have a greater variety of tasks tend stay in the job. Task characteristics have been found to be potential determinants of turnover among employees   1988;   and , 1980; 1989; , 1984). These include the five core job characteristics identified by   (1975, 1980): skill variety, which refers to the opportunity to utilize a variety of valued skills and talents on the job; task identity, or the extent to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work that is, doing a job from beginning to end, with visible results; task significance, which reflects the extent to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people, whether within or outside the organization; job autonomy, or the extent to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and determining procedures that the job provides; and job feedback, which refers to the extent to which the job provides information about the effectiveness of one’s performance (. , 1997). Involvement would influence job satisfaction and increase organizational commitment of the employees. Employees who are more involved in their jobs are more sa tisfied with their jobs and more committed to their organization (, 1989;   1989; , 1988;   1982). Job involvement has also been found to be negatively related to turnover intentions ( 1989). Job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and organizational commitment reflect a positive attitude towards the organization, thus having a direct influence on employee turnover intentions. Job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment are considered to be related but distinguishable attitudes ( 1989). Satisfaction represents an affective response to specific aspects of the job or career and denotes the pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from an appraisal of one’s job or career 1976; , 1974;, 1986). Organizational commitment is an affective response to the whole organization and the degree of attachment or loyalty employees feel towards the organization. Job involvement represents the extent to which employees are absorbed in or preoccupied with their jobs and the extent to which an individual identifies with his/her job ( 1988). The degree of commitment and loyalty can be achieved if management they enrich the jobs, empower and compensate employees properly. Empowerment of employees could help to enhance the continuity of employees in organizations. Empowered employees where managers supervise more people than in a traditional hierarchy and delegate more decisions to their subordinates (, 1997). Managers act like coaches and help employees solve problems. Employees, he concludes, have increased responsibility. Superiors empowering subordinates by delegating responsibilities to them leads to subordinates who are more satisfied with their leaders and consider them to be fair and in turn to perform up to the superior’s expectations ( 1995). All these makes employees to be committed to the organization and chances of quitting are minimal. Chapter 3 Methods and Procedures Introduction  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This chapter of the dissertation shall give an account of the methods and procedures used to acquire the primary data used in this study. The chapter shall also give a description of the research process executed in the course of the dissertation. In the same manner, a presentation of the statistical processes used in processing the acquired data from the respondents. Research Method The study encountered a whole lot of barriers in its completion. These include limitations like time constraints and a similarly tight budget. This in mind, the study shall be employing the descriptive form of research. Studies on research design have given certain distinct descriptions on this type of research process. Descriptive research is basically limited to answering specific questions mentioned in the aims and objectives of the study. Moreover, it employs only descriptive statistics to process the data. The reason for this is to establish simple and uncomplicated statistical applications shall be used to make sure that the presentation is understandable and unambiguous. Such statistical processes shall include the likes of such as averages, percentages, histograms, and frequency distributions. ( 2000, ) It is also imperative to point out that the study will be employing an amalgamation of both the qualitative and quantitative research. This intimates that the study will be using both the existing organizational studies and the reports of the Shangri-La Hotels along with the acquired data from the survey conducted from the employees of the Shangri-La Hotels. In using the two types of research, the study is able to discern the significant contributions of the said modes of research on the overall findings of the study. 2003,   Moreover, the amalgamation of the two research types provides this dissertation the acquisition of both shallow numerical data and interprets it using the rich qualitative data. Respondents The primary data used in this study is the responses of the respondents from the survey. A survey has been conducted from 15 July, 2008 to 30 July, 2008. Primary data was collected from Director of Human Resources in 24 Shangri-La hotels in China using a survey questionnaire with 24 responses were returned, representing 100% response rate. The questionnaire was developed based on the review of labor turnover in hospitality in the literature. Three faculty members of Shangri-La Hotel Group headquarter evaluated the content. The feedback and suggestions were analyzed, and the questionnaire was refined. Research Tools For this study, the primary tool employed for data acquisition shall be the survey questionnaire made by the researcher. The initial part of the survey questionnaire covered the respective characteristics of the respondents. This is essential to establish an overall account of the demographic involved in the study. Moreover, queries on gender, age, job description, and the number of years in the company shall be conducted to similarly determine the variety of the company’s labour force. The second part of the study will be asking questions that fit with the the aims and objectives of this dissertation. Specifically, questions on employee turnover and organisational development will be given. In the same regard, the Likert scale will be used to measure the responses of the employees. Below is the series at which the respondents will be giving their responses on the questions on this portion of the questionnaire: RANGE| INTERPRETATION| 4. 50 – 5. 00| Strongly Agree| 3. 50 – 4. 49| Agree| 2. 50 – 3. 49| Uncertain| 1. 50 – 2. 49| Disagree| 0. 00 – 1. 49| Strongly Disagree| The third part of the questionnaire shall provide open-ended questions to permit the respondents to generously and unreservedly provide their responses. It must be likewise assured by the researcher that the responses of the respondents on this part of the paper will be used with absolute discretion. Validity of the Research Instrument In order to guarantee the soundness of the instrument, the researcher will be giving a draft of the survey questionnaires to the consultant for approval. After the slight modifications and resulting approval of the research tool, the researcher shall seek the assistance of the aforementioned departments in Shangri-La to hand out the questionnaires to five employees in the hotels. These employees shall be asked to give their criticism on the research tool and give propositions on how to further develop the questionnaires. After the subsequent simplification and elimination of any immaterial questions, jargons, and any terms that the respondents could not comprehend, the survey will start to the labour force. Administration of the Research Subsequent to the giving out of the survey questionnaires and the resulting acquirement of data, it will be calculated to resolve the findings of the study. With the employment of statistical applications, the following methods shall be employed: 1. Percentage – to settle on the scale of the responses to the questionnaire. n % = x 100  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ;  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   n – number of responses   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   N  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   N – total number of respondents 2. Weighted Mean f1x1 + f2x2   + f3x3 + f4x4   + f5x5 x =    ; xt where:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   f – weight provided to each response   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   x – amount of responses   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   xt – total amount of responses Ethical Issues With the exception of the technical concerns in the research process, there is likewise a quantity of ethical concerns that the researcher should be aware. Specifically, the researcher is supposed to understand that that concern should be regarded interminably to the respondents within this dissertation. The employees have to continually be comfortable and within the highest possible condition as they are with the bounds of the researcher. It is only appropriate that the employees are not bothered and disturbed as they are in the course of acting in response to the questions of the research instrument. Furthermore, the researcher must tender the respondents the assurance of privacy and prudence. It has to likewise be guaranteed on the part of the researcher that the survey would not dish up adverse implications to the actual jobs or any other professional responsibilities that the respondents cleave to in the organisation. In doing so, it could be likely that the organisation will give their full assistance in the course. Chapter 4 Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data I. Introduction The previous chapters have presented the theoretical foundations of employee retention and turnover in an organization. This chapter shall present the findings of the study based on the survey questionnaire forwarded on HR Director of Shangri-la Hotels. In the same manner, the findings shall be presented in a systematic manner specifically by tabulating it thus presenting a summarized form. In doing so, the discussions shall be more concise and the readers are able to discern the arguments more clearly. Likewise, the interpretation and analysis of the said findings shall be directly related to the discussions provided in the second chapter of this dissertation. Specifically, the literature reviewed shall form part of the foundation on which the following observations and arguments are to be based. In the end of this chapter, a sub conclusion shall be made to synthesize the arguments pointed out in the presentation, interpretation and analysis of the findings provided in this chapter. II. Voluntary vs. Involuntary Turnover The second chapter of this dissertation has given the actual definition of voluntary and involuntary turnover. In its simplest sense, voluntary turnover covers resignations and retirements by the employees while involuntary turnover includes organizational actions like lay-offs and termination of employment provided for by the management. In discussing whether Shangri-la’s turnover leans towards voluntary or involuntary turnover, the structure of the company should first be taken into consideration. The table below summarizes the existing employment structure of the company. Table 1. Existing Employment Structure by Division The table above is divided into the specific division of Shangri-la. Looking at the discussions above, it plainly shows that by the first quarter of 2008, there are twenty-one Shangri-la hotels in China. They are located in Beijing, Hangzhou, Shengzhen, Beihai, Changchun, Qingda, Dalian, Pudong, Wuhan, Harbin, Zhongshan, Fuzhou, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Baotou, Huhhot and Xian city respectively in China. Total staff headcount in individual hotel from 441 to 1461. Each hotel separated into 7 divisions including Administration, Food Beverage, Finance, Rooms, Human Resources, Engineer and Sales Marketing. Majority of employee in individual hotel are in Food Beverage and Rooms. The table below presents the actual overall turnover of the company in 2007. Based on the table below, the turnover rate of the company is rather substantial in the said fiscal year. Table 2. Overall Turnover Report The table presents that the first quarter of the year, Shangri-la Hotels China incurred a total of 8% of the in the first quarter alone. This shows that in the first several months of the fiscal year, a considerable number of employees have severed their employment relationship with the company, though it is not clear as to whether it is voluntary or involuntary. The findings also show that the Administration General division turnover ate is 9%, Food Beverage turnover rate is 8%, Finance turnover rate is 4%, Rooms turnover rate is 8%, Human Resources turnover rate is 3%, Engineer turnover rate is 4% and lastly Marketing turnover rate is 8%. So, it can tell the highest turnover rate division is Administration General and followed by Food Beverage, Rooms and Marketing. Hence, this shows that the Administration and General Division has incurred the most percentage of turnover followed by the Marketing and Rooms Divisions amounting to 8% each. It could be surmised with the said data that most of the individuals leaving the company does administrative work, housekeeping, and even those in marketing. III. Causes of Employee Turnover The data provided above presents the actual existence of labor turnover in Shangri-la Hotels in China. Though it is seen that the rate have not bee quite high and appears to be at a manageable level, the causes of the turnover is still unclear. The following discussions will show the actual causes of the turnover based on the survey provided by the researcher on the said company. Areas such as the job related factors, organizational factors, wage conditions, and career development shall be considered to establish which field contributes more to the overall turnover in the organization. A. Job Related Factors Figure 1. Physical Working Conditions Figure 2. Work Organisation and Productivity B. Organisational Factors Figure 3. Communication in the Organisation Figure 4. Supervision in the Organisation Figure 5. Internal Customer Focus Figure 6. Management of the Organisation C. Job Satisfaction Figure 7. Employee Empowerment and Involvement Figure 8. Job Security D. Wage and Conditions Figure 9. Pay and Benefits E. Training and Career Development Figure 10. Training Development / Career Advancement Figure 11. Performance Appraisal F. Comparison of Alternatives Figure 12. Identification and Image of Shangri-La G. Intent to Quit Figure 13. Other Reasons for Quitting IV. Implications of Turnover V. Sub conclusion Read more: http://ivythesis. typepad. com/term_paper_topics/2009/01/employee-turnover-in-relation-to-specific-human-resource-management-practices-1. html#ixzz19JrBJtix